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NOC Code: NOC Code: 3123 Occupation: Other Professional Occupations in Health Diagnosing and Treating
Occupation Description: Occupation Description:
This unit group includes health professionals who diagnose and treat the diseases and injuries of patients and who are not elsewhere classified. This includes doctors of podiatric medicine, chiropodists and podiatrists, naturopaths, orthoptists and osteopaths. They work in private practices, clinics and hospitals. This unit group includes health professionals who diagnose and treat the diseases and injuries of patients and who are not elsewhere classified. This includes doctors of podiatric medicine, chiropodists and podiatrists, naturopaths, orthoptists and osteopaths. They work in private practices, clinics and hospitals.

  • Click on any of the Essential Skills to view sample workplace tasks for this occupation.
  • Skill levels are assigned to tasks: Level 1 tasks are the least complex and level 4 or 5 tasks (depending upon the specific skill) are the most complex. Skill levels are associated with workplace tasks and not the workers performing these tasks.
  • Scroll down the page to get information on career planning, education and training, and employment and volunteer opportunities.

Table will display the Skill Level for the Noc specified
Essential Skills Essential Skills Levels
Reading Text Reading Text 1 2 3 4
Writing Writing 1 2 3 4 5
Document Use Document Use 1 2 3
Computer Use Computer Use 1 2 3 4
Oral Communication Oral Communication 1 2 3 4
Money Math Money Math 1 2 3
Scheduling or Budgeting and Accounting Scheduling or Budgeting and Accounting 1 2 3 4
Measurement and Calculation Measurement and Calculation 1 2 3
Data Analysis Data Analysis 1 2 3 4
Numerical Estimation Numerical Estimation 1 2
Job Task Planning and Organizing Job Task Planning and Organizing 1 2 3
Decision Making Decision Making 1 2 3
Problem Solving Problem Solving 1 2 3
Finding Information Finding Information 1 2 3 4
Critical Thinking Critical Thinking 1 2 3


  • The skill levels represented in the above chart illustrate the full range of sample tasks performed by experienced workers and not individuals preparing for or entering this occupation for the first time.
  • Note that some occupational profiles do not include all Numeracy and Thinking Essential Skills.

If you would like to print a copy of the chart and sample tasks, click on the "Print Occupational Profile" button at the top of the page.


Reading Text
  • Read short explanations and instructions on product labels. For example, naturopathic doctors read directions for use and warnings on the labels of vitamins, herbal supplements and other natural products. (1)
  • Read email and letters from colleagues, co-workers, patients and suppliers. For example, read letters from other health care professionals which describe the symptoms of referred patients. Read email from patients who ask questions about their treatments. Read email messages from suppliers which confirm the availability of requested materials and equipment. (2)
  • Read text entries in forms. For example, read about patients' primary health concerns in intake forms. (2)
  • Read trade magazines, brochures and professional associations' newsletters to stay abreast of technological advances, legislative changes and other matters affecting the practice. For example, an orthoptist may read a professional association's bulletin to learn about changes to continuing education and certification requirements. A naturopath may read a training company's brochure to find out about upcoming seminars on biotherapeutic drainage, gemnotherapy and single remedies. A podiatrist may read an article in Podiatry Today to learn about a new tri-laminate dressing to lower the risk of infection following subcutaneous soft-tissue foot surgery. (3)
  • Read textbooks and academic journals to learn about the results of experimental treatment procedures and expand knowledge of diseases, deformities, injuries and disorders. For example, an orthoptist may read a textbook about the diagnosis and treatment of binocular vision disorders in children and adults. An osteopath may read an article in the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association about the progressive inhibition of neuromuscular structures technique. A doctor of podiatric medicine may read an article in the Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association about the diagnosis and treatment of nerve entrapment syndromes. (4)
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Writing
  • Write text entries in forms and short notes for record keeping. For example, podiatrists write notes about treatment procedures in patients' records. They also enter instructions in laboratory forms when ordering orthotic devices to correct the position of patients' feet and ankles. (1)
  • Write email and letters to colleagues, co-workers, patients and suppliers. For example, write letters to other health care professionals to transmit and request patients' records. Write email to respond to patients' enquiries about their treatments and to question suppliers about their products and delivery schedules. (2)
  • Write procedures, instructions and recommendations for patients. Be explicit and precise to reduce ambiguities and the possibilities of misinterpretation. For example, a naturopath may write nasal lavage procedures, alternating nostril breathing instructions and acid reflux treatment recommendations for patients. An orthoptist may write instructions for eye exercises and patching routines for patients with defective binocular vision and abnormal eye movement. A podiatrist may compose preoperative and post-operative foot surgery instructions. An osteopath may write instructions for stretching exercises to reduce back pain and improve posture. (3)
  • Write the text for brochures, leaflets and Internet websites to promote approaches to health and wellness and advertise services. Address key questions about symptoms, diseases, disorders, deformities, injuries, prevention and treatment in an effective manner. Gather, select and rewrite information from various sources for a mixed audience of patients, health care professionals and representatives from community organizations as required. For example, naturopaths may write about the symptoms of magnesium and vitamin deficiencies and the importance of calcium in keeping bones and teeth healthy. Podiatrists in private practices may write about their clinics' expertise in treating bunions, hammer toes, plantar warts, tendonitis, corns, ingrown toenails, calluses and athlete's foot. (4)
  • Write articles and case studies for trade magazines, academic journals and conference proceedings. Describe complex clinical conditions encountered, outline diagnostic and treatment procedures used and discuss results obtained. For example, an osteopathic doctor may write an article about a manipulative therapy used to treat patients with pneumonia. A doctor of podiatric medicine may write an article about the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot ulceration and infection and the risk of amputation. A naturopathic doctor may write an article about the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia. (5)
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Document Use
  • Scan product labels for various data. For example, naturopaths may scan labels on vitamins, herbal supplements and other natural products to locate data on ingredients, concentrations and expiry dates. Doctors of podiatric medicine may scan labels on patients' drugs for data on products' names, prescribing doctors' names, dosages and renewals. (1)
  • Locate data in lists, tables and schedules. For example, an osteopath may read a bibliography at the end of a journal article to identify other articles relevant to systemic dysfunctions and the treatment of pneumonia. A podiatrist may read the daily operating room schedule at a hospital to locate data on the day, time and location of a scheduled foot surgery and the names of assistants. A naturopath may read an eating schedule completed by a patient to locate data on meal times, foods eaten and beverages drank. (2)
  • Interpret graphs in textbooks, trade publications and academic journals to learn about the effectiveness of techniques used in the treatment of diseases, deformities, injuries and disorders. (2)
  • Enter data into tables and schedules. For example, a doctor of podiatric medicine may enter details of treatments rendered, time spent and fees charged into a summary table so that a patient's account and medical record can be updated. An orthoptist may enter eye test results into a table to be included in a patient's medical record. An osteopath may enter the dates and times of upcoming appointments into a patient's treatment schedule. (2)
  • Locate data in radiographs, diagnostic images, sketches and pictures. For example, a podiatrist may scan diagnostic images to locate damage to a patient's foot muscles, bones, tendons and ligaments resulting from an injury. An orthoptist may scan an ophthalmologist's sketch of a patient's eye to identify the location of hemorrhages. (3)
  • Complete entry forms such as laboratory requisitions, patient assessments, clinic reports, treatment records, purchase orders, invoices and receipts. Combine data from several sources to complete such forms as required. For example, a doctor of podiatric medicine may complete a form to prescribe a topical antibiotic for a diabetic patient suffering from a foot infection. The doctor may enter data such as the prescription date, the patient's name, address and age and the type of drug and dosage. (3)
  • Locate data in patient intake and consent for treatment forms, medical histories, laboratory test results and other entry forms. For example, review medical history forms to locate data on diagnoses and treatments previously provided by physicians and other health care professionals. (3)
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Computer Use
  • Write and edit text for letters, procedures, instructions, promotional materials, case study reports and journal articles using word processing programs such as Word. Basic page and character formatting features are generally used. (2)
  • Use graphics software. For example, create slide shows using presentation software such as PowerPoint. In order to develop effective presentations for patients, colleagues and community groups, import scanned images. (2)
  • Use databases. For example, naturopaths may use homeopathic databases such as RADAR, Encyclopaedia Homeopathica, MacRepertory and ReferenceWorks to search, display and print data on symptoms and treatment approaches. Doctors of podiatric medicine and orthoptists may use the Medline database to retrieve and print medical articles. (2)
  • Use email programs such as Outlook and Eudora to exchange email and attachments with co-workers, colleagues, suppliers and patients. (2)
  • Use Internet browsers such as Explorer and Firefox to obtain information about particular health conditions, treatments, equipment and suppliers. Use these browsers to access professional associations' websites and on-line journals and participate in discussion forums. (2)
  • Use computer and software applications. For example, private practitioners may assess their needs and select health care office management software from companies such as Medical Software Canada, FOCUS Multisystèmes and CTRL Informatique. Using such software, they may create patients' files, schedule patients, control inventories and track financial accounts. They may also participate in configuring software and training co-workers who will be using it. (4)
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Oral Communication
  • Give directions to co-workers and colleagues and discuss ongoing job tasks with them. For example, an osteopath may give instructions to a secretary about the scheduling of follow-up appointments with a patient. A doctor of podiatric medicine may discuss the next surgical procedure with a medical assistant and provide directions about tasks such as taking x-rays and changing patients' bandages. (2)
  • Negotiate prices and coordinate deliveries of products and equipment with suppliers. For example, naturopaths may negotiate the prices of vitamins, herbal supplements and other natural products with sales representatives. Podiatrists may coordinate the deliveries of podiatric chairs, exam tables, directional lamps, sterilizers, x-ray units, tractographs and pedographs with medical equipment suppliers. (2)
  • Discuss patients' conditions, diagnoses and treatments with other health care professionals. For example, a podiatrist may discuss a patient's health history, diabetes and treatment plan with the referring family physician. A naturopath may consult herbalists about dietary changes to control a patient's irritated bowel. An orthoptist may speak to an ophthalmologist to discuss a patient's eye test results, strabismus and amblyopia and the need for corrective surgery. (3)
  • Lead meetings with co-workers and discuss appointment schedules, invoicing procedures, office administration, equipment needs and other matters affecting the work. At these meetings, teach procedures and techniques you have developed and demonstrate how to operate new equipment as required. For example, an orthoptist may teach the proper operation of an exophthalmometer to ophthalmology technicians at an eye clinic. A naturopath may demonstrate a new technique for the treatment of acid reflux to co-workers at a wellness centre. (3)
  • Interact with patients and their relatives. Establish trust and interview patients and their families to collect and clarify information about physical, emotional and mental health. Listen to descriptions of symptoms and provide reassurance. Explain diagnoses and discuss the pros and cons of various treatment approaches. Answer questions about treatment procedures and alleviate concerns. Educate patients on special care, exercises, diet, hygiene and other measures and refer them to other health care professionals when needed. (3)
  • Make presentations to colleagues and community groups. Adapt presentation style and language for people who are unfamiliar with the topics presented. For example, an osteopath may deliver a presentation about individual differences in response to spinal manipulation therapy at a symposium organized by a professional association. An orthoptist may speak to a group of pre-medical ophthalmology students about the relation between blindness in adults and glaucoma, cataract and diabetic retinopathy. A podiatrist may talk to community groups about the prevention and treatment of common foot disorders. (4)
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Money Math
  • Calculate and verify purchase order and invoice amounts. For example, naturopaths verify invoice amounts for natural supplements, minerals and vitamins purchased from suppliers. They calculate line amounts, discounts and sales taxes. (3)
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Scheduling or Budgeting and Accounting
  • Create work schedules for co-workers. Take into account workload indicators and the need to distribute job tasks equitably. Adjust work schedules because of vacations and sick leave. For example, a naturopathic doctor may create work schedules for a holistic health clinic employing twelve other practitioners, a receptionist, a secretary, an office administrator and a laboratory technician. (3)
  • Calculate amounts for payroll, utility and tax accounts. For example, health professionals in private clinics may calculate payroll amounts for receptionists, secretaries, office administrators, laboratory technicians and medical assistants. They multiply hours worked by hourly wage rates, calculate and subtract deductions for federal and provincial income taxes and contributions to pension plans and employment insurance. They may have to use different hourly wage rates for overtime and work on statutory holidays. (4)
  • Prepare and monitor operational budgets for offices and clinics. Health professionals in private practices have to ensure that expenditures incurred for salaries, rents, medical and office supplies, utilities, insurance, accountants, lawyers, periodicals, advertising, conferences and courses are fully covered by their budgets. They may have to change budget line items because of unexpected events. (4)
  • Prepare and verify financial statements. For example, health professionals in private practices may prepare and verify monthly balance sheets, income and expense statements and statements of cash flows. (4)
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Measurement and Calculation
  • Measure physical properties using common measuring tools. For example, use scales and thermometers to measure patients' body weights and temperatures during physical examinations. Naturopaths may use medicine droppers to measure drops of tinctures when preparing homeopathic remedies for patients. (1)
  • Take precise measurements using specialized tools. For example, an orthoptist may use a synoptophone to measure a patient's degree of visual alignment, acuity, strabismus and fusion. The orthoptist may also use a tonometer to measure hydrostatic eye pressure and track down glaucoma. A doctor of podiatric medicine may use a pedograph to measure the distribution of foot pressure and a tractograph to measure angles when assessing the range of motion in a patient's joints of the foot and ankle. (3)
  • Calculate volumes and concentrations for mixtures and solutions using fractions, ratios, rates and percentages. For example, a podiatrist may calculate the volume and concentration of local anaesthetic needed for a foot area being surgically treated. A naturopath may calculate the volume of water needed for an herbal remedy. (3)
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Data Analysis
  • Collect and analyse physical examination data and test results to assess patients' health, identify treatment options and monitor progress. For example, an osteopath may collect and analyse measurements of a patient's cranial wave motion, lumbo-pelvic rhythms, respiratory rhythms, range of motion and heart rate to assess overall health, develop a treatment plan and monitor progress. A naturopathic doctor may collect and analyse measurements of a patient's levels of vitamins, nutrients, minerals, enzymes, natural sugars, toxins, hormones, bacteria and viruses to determine likely causes of ailments and prescribe various natural treatments. (3)
  • Manage small inventories of medical supplies. Establish desirable inventory levels and calculate turnover rates. Count inventories and calculate quantities needed to bring inventories to desirable levels. For example, doctors of podiatric medicine manage inventories of sterilants, sterile surgery gowns, gloves, syringes, towels, drapes, skin closures, adhesive tapes, bandages, nail files, creams, blades, orthotic casting materials and other supplies. (3)
  • Collect, analyse and interpret research data on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, deformities, injuries and disorders. For example, a podiatrist may collect, analyse and interpret data to compare the effectiveness of foot orthoses, extracorporeal shockwaves and low-dye taping for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. (4)
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Numerical Estimation
  • Estimate times needed to perform job duties, using past experience as a guide. For example, a doctor of podiatric medicine may estimate the time required for an appointment with a patient by assessing the nature and complexity of podiatric procedures to be performed. (1)
  • Estimate times needed by patients to achieve desired treatment outcomes. Consider each patient's health history, current status and objectives to be reached. For example, a naturopathic doctor may estimate the time required for a patient to gain health benefits from a new dietary treatment plan. (2)
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Job Task Planning and Organizing
  • Professionals in other health diagnosing and treating occupations plan and organize job tasks to meet the treatment needs of their patients. They set priorities and provide input into the day-to-day scheduling of patients' visits although their actual appointments are often booked by their secretaries. Appointment cancellations, suppliers' delays, emergencies and other unexpected events force them to frequently reorganize job tasks. Professionals in other health diagnosing and treating occupations play a central role in organizing, planning and scheduling health services and contribute to long-term and strategic planning for their organizations. They may be responsible for assigning tasks to receptionists, secretaries, office administrators, laboratory technicians, medical assistants and other workers. (3)
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Decision Making
  • Select suppliers for specific products, materials and equipment. Take into account factors such as quality, specifications, prices and promised delivery dates. For example, naturopaths select natural product suppliers for vitamins and herbal supplements. Podiatrists select orthotic laboratories for foot orthoses and medical equipment suppliers for podiatric chairs, exam tables, directional lamps, sterilizers, x-ray units, tractographs and pedographs. (2)
  • Select workers for jobs such as receptionists, secretaries, office administrators, laboratory technicians and medical assistants. Consider individual academic backgrounds, skills, experiences, strengths, weaknesses and availabilities. (2)
  • Select the health care professionals to whom to refer patients when diagnoses and treatments needed are beyond your competency. For example, an osteopath may refer a patient presenting life-threatening neurological symptoms to the patient's family physician. A naturopath may refer a patient with a severe back problem to a trusted chiropractor. An orthoptist may refer a patient whose left eye presents a tumour to a particular ocular oncologist who is more suitably trained to diagnose and treat eye cancers. (3)
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Problem Solving
  • Face suppliers' delays which may adversely affect treatment plans and appointment schedules. For example, podiatrists may face delays because the orthotic laboratories are missing technicians and unable to process orders. They contact the laboratories to confirm delay times and locate other laboratories to fabricate foot orthoses in the interim. (2)
  • Some patients miss appointments and others arrive late. Diplomatically remind such patients that you have a busy schedule and cannot afford late arrivals and no-shows. In some cases, charge patients for missed appointments. (2)
  • Encounter patients who are difficult to treat. For example, orthoptists often work with children who are scared of keratometers, ophthalmometers, exophthalmometers, phoropters and other optical measurement instruments. They reassure the children with their voices, body gestures and facial expressions and perform the necessary procedures as quickly as possible. They may also reward good behaviour afterwards with small toys. Naturopaths experience difficulties in getting some patients to adhere to specific regimens of dietary monitoring and supplement intake. They try different approaches in order to motivate patients to conform to prescribed regimens. If they fail in their attempts, they may recommend other treatment options for the patients. (3)
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Finding Information
  • Find information on patients' health by interviewing them, consulting referring health care professionals and searching medical history forms and treatment records. (2)
  • Find information on available conferences, seminars, symposia, workshops and courses relevant to specialization areas by consulting colleagues, searching trade magazines and newsletters, contacting professional societies, private training organizations and universities and searching their websites. (3)
  • Find information about the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, deformities, injuries and disorders which are not familiar by consulting colleagues and searching sources such as textbooks, trade publications, academic journals and the Internet. (3)
  • Find specific information on products, materials and equipment used in the field of practice by consulting a wide range of sources. For example, doctors of podiatric medicine may find detailed information about drug products such as optimal dosages, indications, potential interactions, physiochemical characteristics, mechanisms of action and side and adverse effects by referring to labels and package inserts, consulting pharmacists and searching the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. They need to analyse this information so that they can prescribe appropriate medications to patients. (4)
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Critical Thinking
  • Evaluate the performance of workers such as receptionists, secretaries, office administrators, laboratory technicians and medical assistants. As part of these assessments, determine the extent to which workers have met expectations and adhered to established rules, procedures and schedules. Recommend further training, increased supervision, promotions and job task reassignments at the conclusion of performance evaluations as appropriate. (2)
  • Assess the effectiveness of procedures used to treat patients' conditions. Schedule regular visits with patients during and after treatments to monitor the evolution of symptoms and ensure there are no relapses. For example, doctors of podiatric medicine assess the effectiveness of braces, casts, shields, orthotic devices, physical therapy, medications and surgery to treat specific diseases, deformities and injuries of the human foot. (3)
  • Evaluate the patients' health. Review patients' medical history forms, referral letters and treatment records. Clarify information about patients' physical, emotional and mental conditions by interviewing them. Conduct physical exams, take x-rays and diagnostic images, order laboratory tests and interpret results. As a consequence of these evaluations, diagnose diseases, deformities, injuries and disorders and recommend treatment plans as appropriate. (3)
  • Assess the appropriateness of software for particular applications. Identify performance criteria such as speed, flexibility and compatibility with current equipment. Gather and analyze specifications and expert opinions. For example, naturopaths may assess the appropriateness of homeopathic databases to search data on symptoms and treatment approaches. Podiatrists may assess the appropriateness of health care office management software to create patients' files, schedule patients, control inventories and track financial accounts for their clinics. (3)
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